Safety Data SheetsThe Hazard Communication Standard requires that all chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers provide Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for each hazardous chemical. The SDS sheets (formerly Material Safety Data Sheets or MSDS) are designed to communicate information the product listed on the sheet. The SDS sheets are very simlar to MSDS sheets but are required to format in a consistent 16-section format. This makes the experience of reading these sheets easier on the user.
The SDS sheets, which employers should have available to all employees, provide information on a variety of different areas including hazards, protective measures, and safety precautions. Sections 1 through 8 contain general information about the product including appearance, hazards, composition, etc. Sections 12 through 16 are designed to be part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) but OSHA does not enforce these sections.
Below is a basic breakdown of each section and an example of what the section will look like in a completed SDS.
The first section of the SDS sheet identifies the chemical/product and what the recommended uses are and also provides contact information for the supplier. Required information includes
- Product identifier includes the name used on the label and any other names or synonyms for the product.
- Name, address, phone number, the manufacturer, importer, and other responsible parties, and emergency phone number.
- Recommended use of chemical(what the product actually does) and any restrictions on use (these are usually given by the supplier)
The second section of the SDS identifies and describes the hazards of the product and any warning information associated with the hazard. Required information includes:
- The hazard classification of the product
- Signal word
- Hazard statement(s)
- Pictograms (include link to pictogram page)
- Precautionary statements
- Description of any non-classified hazards
- Mixtures with ingredients with unknown toxicity: A statement detailing how much (percentage) of the mixture consists of ingredients with unknown toxicity
The third section of the new SDS discusses the ingredient(s) in the product and includes impurities and stabilizing additives. This information also includes details on substances, mixtures, and chemicals considered trade secrets**. This section has two sets of required information: one for substances and one of mixtures. Required information for substances includes:
- Chemical name
- Common names and synonyms
- Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number and any other unique identifiers
- Impurities and stabilizing additives
- The same information as substances
- The chemical name and concentration (exact percentages) of all ingredients that are classified as health hazards and
o Are present above cut-off limits or
o Present health risk at levels less than cut-off limit
- The concentration (exact percentages) of each ingredient must be used. Concentration ranges can be used in the following situations:
o A trade-secret
o There is variation from batch to batch
o The SDS is used for a group of similar mixtures
The fourth section of the SDS contains information on initial care that should be given to the person that is exposed to the chemical. These instructions are for the untrained responders. Required information includes:
- Necessary first-aid for all possible exposure (inhalation, skin contact, eye contact, and ingestion)
- Descriptions of the most important symptoms and effects. Also, list out any symptoms that are acute or delayed
- Recommendations for immediate medical care and any special treatment that may be needed.
The fifth section focuses on fire-fighting measure that should be taken when handling a fire caused the by product. Required information includes:
- Recommendations for appropriate extinguishing equipment as well as information on equipment that would not appropriate for a specific situation
- Information on hazards that can develop from the chemical during a fire, such as toxic fumes
- Suggestions for protective equipment or precautions for firefighters
The sixth section of the new SDS sheet provides information on the response needed for spills, leaks, or releases. This includes details on containment and clean-up practices that minimize exposure to people, places, and/or environment. This section will also detail how to distinguish between responses for a large and small spill for when the volume impacts the hazards.
- Personal precautions and protective equipment to prevent contamination with skin, eyes, clothing, etc.
- Emergency procedures including evacuations, when to consult experts, and any needed protective clothing
- Methods and materials needed to contain the spill or leak
- Cleanup procedures including information on any techniques for decontamination, cleaning and any equipment/materials that might be needed
Section seven offers guidance on the safe handling practices and storage of the products listed on the SDS sheet. Required information includes:
- Precautions for safe-handling including ways to minimize release and proper personal practices around the product (smoking, etc.)
- Details on safe storage, including incompatibilities and specific storage requirements.
The eighth section of the sheet discusses exposure limits, engineering controls, and protective measures that can be taken to minimize exposure to workers. Required information includes:
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and any other exposure limit used or recommended including those by the manufacturer, importer, or employer.
- Appropriate engineering controls
- Suggestions for personal protective measure to prevent illness or injury
- Any special requirements for personal protective equipment, protective clothing, or respirators
Section nine identifies physical and chemical properties of the product. Required information includes (when relevant to product):
- Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
- Vapor pressure
- Odor density
- Relative density
- Melting point/freezing point
- Initial boiling point and boiling range
- Flash point
- Evaporation Rate
- Flammability (solid, gas)
- Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water
- Auto-ignition temperature
- Decomposition temperature
The tenth section of new format describes the chemical stability and reactivity hazards of the chemical. This section has three parts: reactivity, chemical stability, and other.
The required information for reactivity includes:
- Description of the specific test data for the chemical. This data can be for the class or family if it gives an adequate representation of the hazards
- Indication of whether the chemical is stable or unstable under normal conditions while being stored or handled.
- Information on any stabilizers that might be needed to maintain stability of the product
- Information on any safety issues that may occur if the product changes in physical appearance
- Information on the possibility of hazardous reactions, including a statement on whether the chemical will react or polymerize. A description of the conditions under which these hazardous reactions can occur is also needed
- A list of all conditions that should be avoided
- List of all classes of incompatible materials which could cause the chemical to react and produce a hazardous situation
- List of any known hazardous decomposition products that could be produced because the use, storage, or heating of the product.
The eleventh section of the SDS provides information toxicological and health effects of the product or indicates that the data is not available. Required information includes:
- Information on likely routes of exposure or indication that this information is unknown
- Descriptions of all the effects from short- and long-term exposure (delayed, immediate, or chronic effects)
- Numerical measures of toxicity (the estimated amount of the product that is expected to kill 50% of test animals with a single dose
- Description of symptoms that includes information on symptoms from exposure from the lowest to most severe exposure
- Indication of whether the product is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Report on Carcinogens (latest edition) or has been listed as a potential carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs or by OSHA
The twelfth section of the SDS provides details to evaluate the environmental impact of the product if it is released into the environment. The required information includes:
- Data from toxicity tests performed on aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms.
- Information potential for the chemical to persist or degrade the environment through either biodegradation or other processes
- Results from tests run on bioaccumulation potential with reference to the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) when available
- Information on the potential for the product to move from the soil to groundwater (results from adsorption or leaching studies)
- Other adverse effects
The thirteenth section of the SDS sheet provides details on the proper disposal practices, recycling, or reclamation of chemicals or its container and safe practices for handling. This section should also refer the reader to section 8 for the SDS to get information on minimize exposure. The required information may include:
- Description of proper disposal containers
- Recommendations for appropriate disposal methods
- Information on the physical and chemical properties that could hinder disposal
- Language discouraging sewage disposal
- Any specific precautions for landfill or incineration activities
The fourteenth section of the SDS provides classification information for shipping and transporting hazardous products. This includes information shipping by road, air, rail, and sea. The required information may include:
- UN number
- UN proper shipping name
- Transport hazard class(es)
- Packing group number based on degree of hazard (if applicable)
- Environmental hazards
- Information on transport in bulk
- Any necessary special precautions that an employee should be aware or comply win in regards to transport (inside or outside of their premises)
The fifteenth section the SDS explains the safety, health, and environmental regulations for the product but it not listed anywhere else on the sheet. Required information may include:
- Any national and/or regulatory information on the chemical or mixtures. This can include any OSHA, Department of Transportation, Environment Protection Agency, or Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations.
- The final section of the SDS provides the date the SDS was prepared or when it was last revised. It also can state where any changes were made. Any other useful information will also be included in this section.
Thhe Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemical Classification
With the rollout of the new The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) comes the rollout of new hazard classifications, pictograms, and explanations. As the system is introduced worldwide, new pictograms will be appearing across various manufacturers' products. Below is a basic explanation of the pictograms and their hazards. For more information, please visit one of the GHS resource links.
Explosives are labeled with one of six categories depending on the hazard. Categories are as follows:
|Flammable Gases||A flammable gas is any gas that has a flammable range in air at 20°C and a standard pressure of 101.3 kPa.|
|Flammable Aerosols||Aerosols are considered flammable if any component in them is classified as flammable according to GHS. This can include flammable liquids, gases, or solids.|
|Oxidizing Gases||Oxidizing gases are gases that when mixed with oxygen, can cause the combustion of surrounding materials. Under normal circumstances these materials would be at the same risk when exposed to air.|
|Gases Under Pressure||Gases contained in a container with a pressure of more than 280 Pa at 20°C or as a refrigerated liquid are considered gases under pressure. This classification covers what can happen if the pressure is suddenly released or the container is frozen not the effects of the gas itself.|
|Flammable Liquids||A flammable liquid is any liquid with a flash point of not more than 93°C.|
|Flammable Solids||A flammable solid is a solid that is readily combustible or can cause or contribute to a fire because of friction. Solids can include powered, granular, or pasty substances which can ignite with even brief contact.|
|Self-Reactive Substances||A self-reactive substances are any thermally unstable liquids or solids that are liable to undergo a strongly exothermic thermal decomposition with or without oxygen.|
|Pyrophoric Liquids||A pyrophoric liquid is a liquid that can ignite within five minutes of coming in contact with air. This can happen with any amount of the liquid.|
|Pyrophoric Solids||A pyrophoric solid is a solid that can ignite within five minutes of coming in contact with air. This can happen with any amount of the solid.|
|Self-Heating Substances||A self-heating substance is a solid or liquid that is not pyrophoric, that can self-heat when brought into contact air. It does not need an energy supply to heat.|
|Substances which, in contact with water emit flammable gases||Substances for this category either emit flammable gases when in contact with water or are solid or liquids that are likely to spontaneously flammable or give off dangerous quantities of flammable gases when in contact with water.|
|Oxidizing Liquids||Oxidizing liquids themselves are not typically combustible but when producing oxygen, they can cause or contribute to the combustion of surrounding materials.|
|Oxidizing Solids||Oxidizing solids themselves are not typically combustible but when producing oxygen, they can cause or contribute to the combustion of surrounding materials.|
|Organic Peroxides||Organic Peroxides are organic liquids or solids that have the bivalent -0-0- structure. They may be considered derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or more atoms have been replaced by organic radicals.|
|Corrosive to Metals||Any substance or mixture that by chemical action can damage or destroy metals are considered corrosive to metals.|
|Acute Toxicity||Acute toxicity is the adverse effects that occur after oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a of a substance. It also includes multiple doses with in 24 hours and inhalation exposure for 4 hours.|
|Skin Corrosion||Skin corrosion means irreversibly damage to the skin after application for up to four hours.|
|Skin Irritation||Skin irritation means that after application for up to four hours, any damage to the skin is reversible and not permanent.|
|Serious Eye Damage||Serious eye damage means that the production of tissue in the eye was damaged or a serious decrease in vision occurs after application of a substance to the front of the eye. This damage is not fully reversible within 21 days of application. These changes can be permanent.|
|Eye Irritation||Eye irritation are any changes in the eye that occur after a substance was applied to the front surface of the eye that are full reversible within 21 days. These changes are not permanent.|
|Respiratory Sensitization||Respiratory sensitization happens when a substance induces hypersensitivity of the airways after inhalation. Typically this makes breathing difficult.|
|Skin Sensitization||Skin sensitization means an allergic reaction like response occurs when a substance comes into contact with skin. This is also known as contact sensitization.|
|Germ Cell Mutagenicity||Germ cell mutagenicity means that a substance is causing an increased occurrence of mutations in populations of cells and organisms through exposure.|
|Carcinogenicity||Carcinogenicity means that a chemical or mixture is likely to cause cancer or increase the likelihood of getting cancer.|
|Reproductive Toxicology||Reproductive toxicology means that exposure to substances with this label can cause adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in both males and females. They can also cause developmental toxicity in offspring.|
|Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single and Repeated Exposure||All significant health effects that are not otherwise listed in the GHS classifications are considered Target Organ Systemic Toxicity. This includes anything that impairs function, is reversible or irreversibly, immediate or delayed, narcotic effects and respiratory tract irritation. This is also known as Specific Target Organ Toxicity.|
|Aspiration Toxicity||Aspiration hazard includes severe acute effects including chemical pneumonia, varying degrees of pulmonary injury, and death following aspiration. Aspiration is defined as the entry of a liquid or solid substance through oral or nasal cavities or indirectly through vomiting.|
|Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment||
• Acute - The substance caused injury to an aquatic organism during short-term exposure
• Chronic - potential or actual properties of the substance will effects to aquatic organisms during exposure that are determined by the lifecycle of the organism.
Lead Free Law
The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act was enacted on January 4th 2011. It amends Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and became effective January 4th, 2014. According to the EPA, this amendment can be broken down as follows:
- 1) Lower maximum lead content of the wetter surfaces of plumbing products such as pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, & fixtures from 8.0% to a weighted average of 0.25%.
- 2) Establish a statutory method of the calculation of lead content.
- For each wetted component the percentage of lead in the component is multiplied by the ratio of the wetted surface area of that component to the total wetted surface area of the entire product to arrive at the weighted percentage of lead of the component.
- The weighted percentage of lead of each wetted component is added together, and the sum of these weighted percentages constitutes the weighted average lead content of the product. The lead content of the material used to produce wetted components is used to determine compliance
- For lead content of materials that are provided as a range, the maximum content of the range must be used.
- 3) Eliminate the requirement that lead free products be in compliance with voluntary standards established in accordance with SDWA 1417 (e) for leaching of lead from new plumbing fittings & fixtures.
- 4) Create exemptions in SDWA section 1417 (a) from the prohibitions on the use or introductions into commerce for:
- Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings or fixtures, including backflow preventers that are used exclusively for non-potable services or other uses where the water is not anticipated for human consumption.
- Toilets, bidets, urinals, fill valves, flushometer valves, tub fillers, shower valves, service saddles, or water distribution main gate valves that are 2 inches in diameter or larger.
|What's Affected?||What's Exempt|
Brass ball valves
Brass check valves
Back flow preventers
Cast brass copper fittings
Threaded brass fittings
Water main fittings
Vales that are 2" or larger in diameter
- Pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings & fixtures affected include both point of use and point of entry devices.
- All pipes, fittings, & fixtures used exclusively needs to be clearly labeled as illegal to use on potable service and not for human consumption.
- Human consumption includes, drinking, teeth brushing, food preparation, dish washing, etc.
- Anything installed before January 4th, 2014 does not need to be replaced as long as it meets the previous lead free guidelines.
- State and local jurisdictions may have additional limitations or requirements outside of regulations set in the SDWA.
- There is no exemption for temporary or emergency repairs.
- It isrecommended that all products for non-potable use be marked on both the packaging and the product to ensure it is no used for human consumption
EPA Summary Document